Mysore V, Cullere X, Settles ML, Ji X, Kattan MW, Desjardins M, Durbin-Johnson B, Gilboa T, Baden LR, Walt DR, Lichtman A, Jehi L, Mayadas TN. Protective heterologous T cell immunity in COVID-19 induced by MMR and Tdap vaccine antigens. Med (N Y). 2021 Sep 10;2(9):1050-1071.e7. PMID: 33972940, PMC8109200. Selected for Cover image. BWH press release
T cells control viral infection and promote vaccine durability and in COVID-19 associate with mild disease. We investigated whether prior Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) or Tetanus-Diptheria-Pertussis (Tdap) vaccination elicit cross-reactive T cells that mitigate COVID-19.
Antigen presenting cells (APC) loaded ex vivo with SARS-CoV-2, MMR or Tdap antigens and autologous T cells from COVID-19 convalescent and uninfected individuals, and COVID-19 mRNA vaccinated donors were co-cultured. T cell activation and phenotype were detected by IFN-g ELISpot assays and flow cytometry. ELISA assays and validation studies identified the APC-derived cytokine(s) driving T cell activation. TCR clonotyping and scRNA-seq identified cross-reactive T cells and their transcriptional profile. A propensity-weighted analysis of COVID-19 patients estimated the effects of MMR and Tdap vaccination on COVID-19 outcomes.
High correlation was observed between T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 (Spike-S1 and Nucleocapsid) and MMR and Tdap proteins in COVID-19 convalescent and vaccinated individuals. The overlapping T cell population contained an effector memory T cell subset (TEMRA) implicated in protective, anti-viral immunity and their detection required APC-derived IL-15, known to sensitize T cells to activation. Cross-reactive TCR repertoires detected in antigen-experienced T cells recognizing SARS-CoV-2, MMR and Tdap epitopes had TEMRA features. Indices of disease severity were reduced in MMR or Tdap vaccinated individuals by 32-38% and 20-23% respectively, among COVID-19 patients.
Tdap and MMR memory T cells reactivated by SARS-CoV-2 may provide protection against severe COVID-19 disease.
Mysore V, Cullere X, Mears J, Rosetti F, Okubo K, Liew PX, Zhang F, Madera-Salcedo I, Rosenbauer F, Stone RM, Aster JC, von Andrian UH, Lichtman AH, Raychaudhuri S, Mayadas TN. FcγR engagement reprograms neutrophils into antigen cross-presenting cells that elicit acquired anti-tumor immunity. Nat Commun. 2021 Aug 9;12(1):4791. PMID: 34373452; PMC8352912. Selected for Editor’s Highlight Page.
Classical dendritic cells (cDC) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) that regulate immunity and tolerance. Neutrophil-derived cells with properties of DCs (nAPC) are observed in human diseases and after culture of neutrophils with cytokines. Here we show that FcγR-mediated endocytosis of antibody-antigen complexes or an anti-FcγRIIIB-antigen conjugate converts neutrophils into nAPCs that, in contrast to those generated with cytokines alone, activate T cells to levels observed with cDCs and elicit CD8+ T cell-dependent anti-tumor immunity in mice. Single cell transcript analyses and validation studies implicate the transcription factor PU.1 in neutrophil to nAPC conversion. In humans, blood nAPC frequency in lupus patients correlates with disease. Moreover, anti-FcγRIIIB-antigen conjugate treatment induces nAPCs that can activate autologous T cells when using neutrophils from individuals with myeloid neoplasms that harbor neoantigens or those vaccinated against bacterial toxins. Thus, anti-FcγRIIIB-antigen conjugate-induced conversion of neutrophils to immunogenic nAPCs may represent a possible immunotherapy for cancer and infectious diseases.
Okubo K, Brenner MD, Cullere X, Saggu G, Patchen ML, Bose N, Mihori S, Yuan Z, Lowell CA, Zhu C, Mayadas TN. Inhibitory affinity modulation of FcγRIIA ligand binding by glycosphingolipids by inside-out signaling. Cell Rep. 2021 May 18;35(7):109142. PMID: 34010642; PMC8218468. Selected as Editors’ Pick.
The interaction of the human FcγRIIA with immune complexes (ICs) promotes neutrophil activation and thus must be tightly controlled to avoid damage to healthy tissue. Here, we demonstrate that a fungal-derived soluble β-1,3/1,6-glucan binds to the glycosphingolipid long-chain lactosylceramide (LacCer) to reduce FcγRIIA-mediated recruitment to immobilized ICs under flow, a process requiring high-affinity FcγRIIA-immunoglobulin G (IgG) interactions. The inhibition requires Lyn phosphorylation of SHP-1 phosphatase and the FcγRIIA immunotyrosine-activating motif. β-glucan reduces the effective 2D affinity of FcγRIIA for IgG via Lyn and SHP-1 and, in vivo, inhibits FcγRIIA-mediated neutrophil recruitment to intravascular IgG deposited in the kidney glomeruli in a glycosphingolipid- and Lyn-dependent manner. In contrast, β-glucan did not affect FcγR functions that bypass FcγR affinity for IgG. In summary, we have identified a pathway for modulating the 2D affinity of FcγRIIA for ligand that relies on LacCer-Lyn-SHP-1-mediated inhibitory signaling triggered by β-glucan, a previously described activator of innate immunity.
Saggu G, Okubo K, Chen Y, Vattepu R, Tsuboi N, Rosetti F, Cullere X, Washburn N, Tahir S, Rosado AM, Holland SM, Anthony RM, Sen M, Zhu C, Mayadas TN. Cis interaction between sialylated FcγRIIA and the αI-domain of Mac-1 limits antibody-mediated neutrophil recruitment. Nat Commun. 2018 Nov 29;9(1):5058. PMID: 30498196; PMC6265255.
Vascular-deposited IgG immune complexes promote neutrophil recruitment, but how this process is regulated is still unclear. Here we show that the CD18 integrin Mac-1, in its bent state, interacts with the IgG receptor FcγRIIA in cis to reduce the affinity of FcγRIIA for IgG and inhibit FcγRIIA-mediated neutrophil recruitment under flow. The Mac-1 rs1143679 lupus-risk variant reverses Mac-1 inhibition of FcγRIIA, as does a Mac-1 ligand and a mutation in Mac-1’s ligand binding αI-domain. Sialylated complex glycans on FcγRIIA interact with the αI-domain via divalent cations, and this interaction is required for FcγRIIA inhibition by Mac-1. Human neutrophils deficient in CD18 integrins exhibit augmented FcγRIIA-dependent recruitment to IgG-coated endothelium. In mice, CD18 integrins on neutrophils dampen IgG-mediated neutrophil accumulation in the kidney. In summary, cis interaction between sialylated FcγRIIA and the αI-domain of Mac-1 alters the threshold for IgG-mediated neutrophil recruitment. A disruption of this interaction may increase neutrophil influx in autoimmune diseases.
Nishi H, Furuhashi K, Cullere X, Saggu G, Miller MJ, Chen Y, Rosetti F, Hamilton SL, Yang L, Pittman SP, Liao J, Herter JM, Berry JC, DeAngelo DJ, Zhu C, Tsokos GC, Mayadas TN. Neutrophil FcγRIIA promotes IgG-mediated glomerular neutrophil capture via Abl/Src kinases. J Clin Invest. 2017 Oct 2;127(10):3810-3826. PMID: 28891817; PMC5617671.
The kidney glomerular capillaries are frequent sites of immune complex deposition and subsequent neutrophil accumulation in post-infectious and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. However, the mechanisms of neutrophil recruitment remain enigmatic, and there is no targeted therapeutic to avert this proximal event in glomerular inflammation. The uniquely human activating Fc receptor FcγRIIA promotes glomerular neutrophil accumulation and damage in anti-glomerular basement membrane-induced (anti-GBM-induced) glomerulonephritis when expressed on murine neutrophils. Here, we found that neutrophils are directly captured by immobilized IgG antibodies under physiological flow conditions in vitro through FcγRIIA-dependent, Abl/Src tyrosine kinase-mediated F-actin polymerization. Biophysical measurements showed that the lifetime of FcγRIIA-IgG bonds increased under mechanical force in an F-actin-dependent manner, which could enable the capture of neutrophils under physiological flow. Kidney intravital microscopy revealed that circulating neutrophils, which were similar in diameter to glomerular capillaries, abruptly arrested following anti-GBM antibody deposition via neutrophil FcγRIIA and Abl/Src kinases. Accordingly, inhibition of Abl/Src with bosutinib reduced FcγRIIA-mediated glomerular neutrophil accumulation and renal injury in experimental, crescentic anti-GBM nephritis. These data identify a pathway of neutrophil recruitment within glomerular capillaries following IgG deposition that may be targeted by bosutinib to avert glomerular injury.